Ashish Dasnurkar

Different ways of invoking JavaScript functions

In JavaScript the way a function is invoked has a significant impact on how the code within it executes, especially regarding this parameter.

If you have followed couple of my earlier posts I have demonstrated two ways of invoking functions already and they are

1. Invoking functions as, surprise, functions

2. Invoking functions as object methods

Now in addition to these two there are two more ways of invocations

3. Invoking functions as constructors

4. Invoking functions using apply() and call() methods

Before I dig into details of each type of function invocation, I must explain two important concepts i.e. two implicit parameters arguments and this that are passed to every invoked function.

arguments collection

Whenever a function is invoked in any of the four ways mentioned above, it can also be supplied with list of arguments which in turn are assigned to the parameters in the same order as defined in function declaration.

When the number of arguments match number of parameters then first argument is assigned to the first parameter, second argument is assigned to the second parameter and so on.

When the number of arguments are less than number of parameters then the parameters that have no corresponding arguments are set to undefined.

When the number of arguments are more than number of parameters then these extra arguments are simply not assigned to any parameters. Important thing to note though is that there is a way to access these extra arguments via implicit parameter called arguments

This implicit arguments parameter is quite deceptive. As in it acts like an array but it isn’t really an array. It has length property, its elements can be accessed using array notation and it can also be iterated just like an array can be. But it doesn’t have all array methods available on it.

this parameter

This notion of this implicit reference comes from object-oriented languages where methods are usually invoked in the context of an object and this generally points to this function context object. In JavaScript also if you invoke a function as an object’s method then its function context is the object and it means this implicitly references to the object. However invoking function as object method is just one of the four ways of invoking a function.

Let’s take a look at each of these four ways of invoking functions and what effect they have on the implicit this parameter they have in detail with sample codes

1. Invoking functions as functions

A function can be invoked simply using the () operator on any expression that resolves to a function reference.

function a() {
	console.log(this); // prints [object Window]

When function is invoked in this manner the function context is Window i.e. the global context. This is true even when a function is deeply nested within other functions.

function a() {
    function b() {
       function c() {
          console.log(this); // prints [object Window]

In above code, for function c function context is still Window

2. Invoking functions as object methods

As I described in [earlier post]({% post_url 2014-11-21-javascript-functions-travel-first-class %}), functions can be assigned to object properties and can be invoked using parentheses ().

Similar to object-oriented languages, if a function is invoked as an object’s method then the object becomes the function context.

var user = {'name' : 'Bon Jovi'};
user.sing = function() {
	console.log( + ' is singing');
user.sing(); // prints Bon Jovi is singing

3. Invoking functions as constructors

Functions that can be invoked as constructors are just like any other functions. What makes a function a constructor function is the way it is invoked which is using new keyword.

When a function is invoked as a constructor function i.e. using new keyword,

  1. A new empty Object is created and passed on to the function as this implicit parameter. this new Object becomes function context for the constructor function.

  2. If nothing is returned from function, by default this newly created Object is returned from it.

function Singer() {
	this.sing = function() {
		console.log(this + ' is singing');
        return this;
var user = new Singer();
console.log(user.sing() === user); // prints true

Note: Nothing is stopping from you to invoke a constructor function like a normal function i.e. without new keyword. In above example calling singer(); will get window object passed to it as its function context and get a sing method attached on it. Not exactly how you would want a constructor function to work.

4. Invoking function with apply() and call() methods

All the above ways of function invocation dictate what will be the function context But what if you want to force what will be the function context ? Well, function themselves provides you with the means to do so with apply() and call() methods. Wait a min though. Methods? methods of functions? Yes, you heard it right. Remember [functions are first class objects]({% post_url 2014-11-21-javascript-functions-travel-first-class %}) and what do objects have? Objects have methods, and data of course. Every function is an object. Specifically, each function is an object of Function.

Ok, let’s see how to use apply() and call() methods to explicitely set this then.

var randomWeights = [10,20,30];

function addToBox() {
	var weight = 0;
	for (var i = 0; i < arguments.length; i++) {
		weight += arguments[i];
	this.weight = weight;

var redBox = {};
var blueBox = {};

addToBox.apply(redBox, randomWeights);, 1,2,3,4,5);
console.log(redBox.weight); // prints '60'
console.log(blueBox.weight);// prints '15'

Both, apply() and call() methods takes first argument as the object that can be used as function context i.e. this. The difference between these two methods is how the rest of the arguments are supplied to the function. apply() takes an array of arguments whereas call() takes any number of arguments.